lion pictureUntil lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunters.

African Proverb

lion picture

This Month in Peace and Justice History
brought to you by the peaceCENTER, San Antonio, Texas

  January
1-Jan World Peace Day
1-Jan A law making slave importation into the U.S. illegal becomes effective. (1808)
1-Jan William Lloyd Garrison publishes The Liberator, the leading abolitionist paper in the United States. (1831)
1-Jan Michigan becomes the first state to abolish capital punishment. (1847)
1-Jan President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
1-Jan Arrest of 10 anti-nuclear activists for trespassing at Nevada Test Site culminates a 54-day encampment at the main Test Site gate. The camp establishes momentum for what became a movement of over 10,000 arrests in numerous Test Site protests over the following years. (1986)
1-Jan Czechoslovakia peacefully split into two new countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. (1993)
2-Jan Free Black community of Philadelphia petitions Congress to abolish slavery. (1800)
2-Jan President Roosevelt shuts down the post office in Indianola, Mississippi, for refusing to accept its appointed postmistress because she is African-American. (1903)
2-Jan Conference of Industrial Unionists in Chicago forms the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), known as The Wobblies. (1905)
2-Jan An estimated 100,000 Bangladeshi women traveled from the countryside to attend a rally in Dacca, the capital, to protest Islamic clerics' attacks on women's education & employment. (1996)
3-Jan Political and social reformer Lucretia Coffin Mott was born in Nantucket, MA. (1793)
3-Jan Martin Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church. (1521)
3-Jan Samuel Leamon Younge Jr., a student civil rights activist, was fatally shot by a white gas station owner following an argument over segregated restrooms, in Tuskeegee, Ala.(1966)
3-Jan President Carter pardons most of the Vietnam war draft resisters, nearly 10,000 qualified. (1977)
4-Jan Burma, now known as Myanmar, becomes an independent sovereign nation, ending more than six decades of British rule. (1948)
4-Jan Free Speech Movement holds its first legal rally on Sproul Plaza, University of California at Berkeley. (1965)
5-Jan Felix Manz, first Anabaptist martyr, sentenced to death, Zurich. (1527)
5-Jan Committee Against Nuclear Power Plants stops plant planned for Queens, NY. (1964)
5-Jan "Prague Spring," political and economic reforms, including increased freedom of speech and an end to state censorship, begins in Czechoslovakia. (1968)
5-Jan 20,000 miners in WV strike to protest the murder of Jock Yablonski, reform miners leader. (1970)
5-Jan 19 arrested in "Homes Not War" protest, Tucson, Arizona. (1971)
6-Jan First world anti-slavery convention held. (1831)
6-Jan William Lloyd Garrison and 15 others found New England Anti-Slavery Society (1832)
6-Jan President Roosevelt introduces the term "Four Freedoms": free speech & expression; free to worship; free from fear; & free from want. (1941)
7-Jan Marian Anderson debuts at the Metropolitan Opera, becoming the first African American to perform at America's most prestigious opera house. (1955)
7-Jan First airplane bombing experiments with explosives, San Francisco. (1911)
7-Jan Federal courts forbid most uses of the pesticide DDT, nine years after the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. (1971)
8-Jan In the battle of Dove Creek, near San Angleo, 370 Texas militiamen attacked what was assumed to be an encampment of 1400 Comanches but were peaceful Kickapoo, in one of the last battles in Texas between Anglos & Native Americans. (1865)
8-Jan Congress overrides the president's veto of a bill granting all adult male citizens of the District of Columbia the right to vote, the first election law passed in America granting African-American men the right to vote. (1867)
8-Jan Birth of A.J. Muste, founder of Fellowship of Reconciliation (1885)
8-Jan African National Congress founded in South Africa. (1912)
8-Jan Legislation passed allowing Kickapoo tribal members, who live on both sides of Rio Grande near Eagle Pass, Texas, to apply for U.S. citizenship. (1983)
8-Jan 200 Teamsters leaders hold "Labor for Peace" meeting to oppose Gulf War, New York City. (1991)
8-Jan Mothers' March For Life & Compassion to Grozny, Chechnya, leaves Moscow, Russia. (1995)
9-Jan Treaty with the Wyandot, Delaware, Ottowa, Potawatomi, & Sauk is the first in the new U.S. to recognize Native Americans as independent "nations." (1789)
9-Jan American feminist Carrie Chapman Catt, pacifist & suffragist, co-founder of Women's Peace Party & League of Women Voters, is born. (1859)
9-Jan Southern Tenant Farmers' Union lead Missouri Highway sit-down of 1,700 tenant families. (1939)
9-Jan Ten peace activists are arrested at Fort McCoy, WI for handing out written warnings to military reservists about participation in war crimes. (1991)
10-Jan The White House is picketed for the first time, in support of Women's sufferage. (1917)
10-Jan Versailles Treaty, establishing League of Nations (1920)
10-Jan Thomas Paine published his influential pamphlet, "Common Sense." (1773)
10-Jan Brethren, Mennonites and Friends send message to President Roosevelt asking for alternative service in event of war. (1940)
10-Jan Vernon Dahmer, a wealthy businessman in Hattiesburg, Miss., offered to pay poll taxes for those who couldnít afford the fee required to vote. The night after a radio station broadcasted Dahmerís offer, his home was firebombed. Dahmer died later from severe burns. (1966)
10-Jan Guatemalan officials and leftist guerilla movement agree to negotiate to end 30 years of violent conflict. (1994)
11-Jan Alice Paul, chief strategist for the militant wing of the suffrage movement and author of the Equal Rights Amendment, was born in Moorestown, NJ (1885)
11-Jan A young lawyer, Mohandas Gandhi, is jailed for the first time, in Johannesburg, South Africa, for refusing to register as an Asian. (1911)
11-Jan Peace Pledge Union organizes "Operation Gandhi," first British protest against nuclear weapons, London. (1952)
12-Jan SCLC founded by Martin Luther King and other Black clergymen (1957)
12-Jan Twenty West German judges arrested for blockading the U.S. Air Force base at Mutlangen, West Germany. (1987)
13-Jan Novelist Emile Zolaexposes rampant French anti-Semitism & a military cover up in the Dreyfus Affair with publication of J'accuse! (1898)
13-Jan Birthday of Danish playwright & priest Kaj Munk, whose outspoken sermons & plays during World War II led to his execution by the Nazis. (1898)
13-Jan U.S. Supreme Court rules (5-3) public school officials have broad powers to censor school newspapers, plays & other expressive activities. (1988)
13-Jan Vigil against arrival of ship bringing plutonium for nuclear reactor, Tokai, Japan. (1993)
14-Jan Church authorities burn Hebrew books in Rome. (1601)
14-Jan Martin Niemoller, German Minister imprisoned for many years by the Nazis, born (1892)
14-Jan Birth of Albert Schweitzer in Kaysersberg, Alsace-Lorraine, Germany. (1875)
14-Jan US Supreme Court rules unconstitutional any state law requiring railroads to provide equal accommodations for passengers, regardless of race or color. (1878)
14-Jan U.S. Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of the selective service law, affirms all criminal charges arising from non-compliance with the draft. (1918)
14-Jan A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters & chief spokesperson for the African American working class, calls for a March on Washington, demanding racial integration of the military & equal access to defense-industry jobs. (1941)
14-Jan George Wallace sworn in as Governor of Alabama; his address states "segregation now; segregation tomorrow; segregation forever!". (1963)
14-Jan March on Atlanta to protest ouster of Julian Bond, African American pacifist, from Georgia House of Representatives, after his endorsement of SNCC statement critical of US involvement in Vietnam. (1966)
14-Jan Peace accords signed to dismantle Ukraine's nuclear weapons & take U.S. & Russian missiles off Ukrainian targets. (1994)
15-Jan The United States Senate ratified the Kellogg-Brian pact, which outlawed war. (1929)
15-Jan Birth of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929)
15-Jan Jeanette Rankin Brigade, led by 87-year-old Rankin, the first U.S. Congresswoman & the only member of Congress to vote against U.S. entry to both World Wars, marches on Washington to protest war in Vietnam. (1968)
15-Jan Trial of Janet McCloud (Tulalip Indian tribe) & others for "fish-in" on Nisqually River in Washington state in 1965; all are found not guilty. (1969)
15-Jan Vigils around the world mark expiry of US/UN deadline for military attack on Iraq if they don't leave Kuwait. (1991)
16-Jan In Hawaii, Queen Lilluokalani's regime is overthrown by US pineapple tycoon Sanford Dole & pro-annexation sugar interests. (1893)
16-Jan Senator James Eastland introduces resolution to declare a "state of emergency" in the U.S. Allows Congress to invoke a McCarran Internal Security Act provision under which American Communists could be rounded up & jailed in concentration camps. (1952)
16-Jan Jan Palach immolates himself to protest Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.(1969)
17-Jan Mangas Colorado, Apache chief, agrees to peace talks, is then arrested & imprisoned at Fort McLane (Arizona), then shot by two soldiers in his cell. (1863)
17-Jan Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving tens of thousands of Jews, disappeared in Hungary while in Soviet custody. (1945)
17-Jan President Eisenhower delivers Farewell Address warning the nation of the "Military- Industrial Complex." (1961)
17-Jan Chicano/a activists gather in Crystal City, TX, to form La Raza Unida Party. (1970)
17-Jan 5,000 rally, 138 arrested to protest test launch of first strike Trident Missile, Cape Canaveral, FL (1987)
17-Jan Over 2000 indigenous Tzeltals & Tojolbals from the state of Chiapas, Mexico, occupy the military barracks of the 39th Military Zone in protest over Army incursions into their communities. (1998)
18-Jan US begins spraying foliage in Vietnam to expose Viet Cong guerrillas. The US dropped millions of gallons of herbicides such as Agent Orange which sparked charges that the United States was violating international norms against using chemical weapons in war, and many of the herbicides were later found to cause birth defects and rare forms of cancer in humans. (1962)
18-Jan Greenham women 'keen' outside House of Commons. (1982)
19-Jan 59 arrested in civil rights sit in, Chattanooga, TN (1960)
19-Jan 25,000 march in Washington, DC against massive U.S. bombing of Iraq. (1991)
19-Jan "Shoes for Guns" firearm buy-back effort begins in Chicago. (1994)
20-Jan American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) founded. (1920)
20-Jan Nazi officials hold notorious Wannsee conference in Berlin deciding on "final solution" calling for extermination of Europe's Jews. (1942)
20-Jan Over 200 citizens show up at a Seattle public hearing, many in radiation suits & mutant radioactive survivor makeup, & conduct die-ins to protest possible restart of nuclear weapon production at Hanford, Washington. (1998)
21-Jan Quaker Peace Testimony presented to Charles II, England. (1661)
21-Jan Emma Tenayuca leads San Antonio pecan shellers on the largest labor walk-out held to date. (1938)
21-Jan Spanish, Portuguese & South American activists hijack Portuguese liner "Santa Maria" to protest the Franco & Salazar dictatorships. (1961)
21-Jan Continental Walk for Disarmament & Social Justice starts in Ukiah, California, headed for Washington, D.C. (1976)
21-Jan Women for Peace founded, Norway (1980)
21-Jan Women's resistance camp set up, Volkel airbase, the Netherlands. (1984)
21-Jan 60 protesters with bathrobes, shower caps, & toothbrushes traipse through upscale stores in downtown Seattle, looking for a place to take a shower, in a protest drawing attention to City Council plans to kill a proposed downtown public hygiene center that could be used by the homeless. (1997)
22-Jan In a massacre known as Bloody Sunday, soldiers fired on civilians attempting to present petitions for better living and working conditionsto the Czar. The Russian workers lost faith in the Czar and turned to radicals and revolution to change their lives. (1905)
22-Jan 200 killed by Somoza's National Guard during protest against state violence, Managua, Nicaragua. (1967)
22-Jan 12 African-American congressmen boycott President Richard Nixon's State of the Union Address because of his constant refusal to hear the concerns of Black Americans. (1971)
22-Jan World Council of Churches announces South African divestment. (1973)
22-Jan Over 2,000 demonstrators in Moscow protest Chechen war. (1995)
22-Jan 150,000 workers in South Korea walk off their jobs to protest recent labor legislation. (1997)
23-Jan First British Disarmament Campaign, Liverpool, England (1875)
23-Jan 15 "Committee of 100" supporters sit in at House of Commons demanding halt to nuclear weapon tests. (1962)
23-Jan 24th Amendment to U.S. Constitution passed, outlawing poll taxes in federal elections. (1964)
24-Jan John Lennon & Yoko Ono shaved their heads to commemorate the start of Year One for Peace. (1970)
25-Jan Sojourner Truth addresses first Black Women's Rights Convention, Akron, OH (1851)
25-Jan In May1930, Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned for his incitement against the British monopoly on salt; it was illegal for anyone other than the British government in India to manufacture or sell salt. He was released on this date. (1930)
25-Jan INFACT (Infant Formula Action Coalition) wins settlement with Nestle Corporation after a seven year boycott. (1984)
25-Jan Soldiers' Mothers Committee begins 56 mile peace march between Nazran & Grozny, Chechnya. (1995)
26-Jan The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, later defeated by a filibuster in the Senate. (1922)
26-Jan The Indian Constitution became law and India proclaimed itself a republic, whose sovereignty was derived from the people, becoming the largest democracy in the world. (1950)
26-Jan First US Nuclear test at Nevada Test Site (1951)
26-Jan Major accident occurs at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine. The radiation cloud killed 23; 40,000 were evacuated. (1986)
26-Jan 100,000 march against Gulf War, New York City & San Francisco. (1991)
26-Jan Women in Black demonstrate in solidarity with their Serbian sisters, Toronto, Canada. (1993)
27-Jan The United States and North Vietnam signed a cease-fire agreement. The same day, the United States announced an end to the military draft. (1973)
27-Jan Nationwide strike by some 10,000 conscientious objectors, West Germany. (1983)
27-Jan France conducted an open-air nuclear test in the South Pacific. (1996)
28-Jan Author and activist Julia Ward Howe became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. (1908)
28-Jan A federal judge in Los Angeles ruled that the U.S. military's policy against homosexuals was unconstitutional because it was "based on cultural myths and false stereotypes." (1993)
29-Jan Four women Ploughshares activists cause millions in damage, disarming a British Aerospace F-16 fighter jet destined to be sold to Indonesia for use in its illegal occupation & genocide of East Timor. The women were later acquitted of all charges on the grounds of preventing a greater crime. Warton, England. (1996)
30-Jan Gandhi Assassinated, New Delhi. (1948)
30-Jan As Martin Luther King, Jr. stands at the pulpit, leading a mass meeting during the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott, his home is bombed. (1956)
30-Jan In a clash with British troops, 14 Irish civilians were killed in Derry, Ireland. This is remembered as Ireland's "Bloody Sunday." (1972)
31-Jan US government orders all Native Americans to move to reservations or be declared hostile. (1876)
31-Jan Pacifist priest Thomas Merton born in Pyrenees-Orientales, France. (1915)
31-Jan The Winter Soldier Hearings begin in a Howard Johnson's motel in Detroit. Sponsored by the group Vietnam Veterans Against the War, the hearings are an attempt by soldiers who have served in Vietnam to publicize U.S. conduct in the war. (1971)
31-Jan 300,000 Berliners rally against attacks on immigrants, racisn and Nazism on the 60th anniversary of Hitler's rise to power. (1993)
31-Jan Illinois Gov. George Ryan halted all executions in his state after several death row inmates were found to be innocent of the crimes for which they were about to be put to death. (2000)